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  • Alberto Vittrup posted an update 1 month, 1 week ago

    Depression and brain derived-neurotrophic issue (BDNF) is a mediator of this plasticity (Castr and Rantam i, 2010). Basically, BDNF was identified decreased in depressed patients and in stressed animals (Dwivedi, 2009). In this context, miRNAs are identified to influence BDNF, which might in turn induce the synthesis of miR-132 to regulate neurogenesis (Castr and Rantam i, 2010; Yan et al., 2013). The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) superfamily, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun fpsyg.2016.01448 N-terminal kinase and p38 proteins, when activated in microglia trigger the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (Kaminska et al., 2009; see Figure 1), producing MAPK signal transduction vital in regulating gene expression and mediating a jir.2014.0001 rapid response in stress-responsive microRNA expression (Biggar and Storey, 2011). Expression of miR-221 and miR-222 was shown to be connected with ERK1/2 activation (Terasawa et al., 2009). MiRNA expression was reported to become globally downregulated within the prefrontal cortex of depressed suicide victims (Smalheiser et al., 2012), that is constant using the hypo-activation with the frontal cortex reported in depressed subjects (Covington et al., 2010). Those Authors observed that the 21 miRNAs located downregulated were connected to cell growth and differentiation. Nonetheless, miR-185 and miR-491-3p were improved within the frontal cortex of suicide completers (Serafini et al., 2014). Complementary research making use of post-mortem human prefrontal cortex samples from MDD sufferers showed that miR-1202, a primate distinct miRNA that is definitely enriched inside the human brain, was down-regulated in depressed people (Lopez et al., 2014). This miR-1202 targets theFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience | http://www.frontiersin.orgDecember 2015 | Volume 9 | ArticleBrites and FernandesMicroglia Activation, Microvesicles and miRNAs in Neuroinflammation-DepressionTABLE 1 | Vital and dysregulated microRNA (miR) in situations of stress/depression. microRNA Connected to depression-related pathways Straight implicated in stress/depression within the MDD patient’s brain ReferencemiR-Let-7amiR-124 miR-29a miR-26a miR-26b miR-26b, miR-1972, miR-4485, miR-4498, and miR-GRM4 as target. Modulator of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and Galantamine web serotonergic neurotransmission. Regulator of anxiety-related behaviors. Neuronal differentiation of embryonic neural progenitors. Formation and plasticity of synapses. Essential for neurogenesis. Targets Voltage Dependent Anion Channel and ATP synthetase. Vital in neuronal improvement and morphogenesis. Induces cell cycle in postmitotic neurons and apoptosis. Target biological processed involved in brain development and function: axon guidance and extension, synaptic transmission, finding out and memory. Target serotonin receptors, corticotrophinreleasing hormone receptor and glutamate transporters. Enrich pathways connected to neuronal function in depression. BDNF as target.Davis et al. (2012), Lopez et al. (2014) and Rucker and McGuffin (2014) Schratt et al. (2006), Schwamborn et al. (2009) and Rinaldi et al. (2010) Uchida et al. (2010) Uchida et al. (2010) and Bargaje et al. (2012) Rinaldi et al. (2010) and Li and Sun (2013) Rinaldi et al. (2010) and Absalon et al. (2013) Fan et al. (2014)in the frontal cortex following acute strain within the medial pre-frontal cortex following maternal separation anxiety within the medial pre-frontal cortex following maternal separation anxiety within the frontal cortex following acute stre.

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